Impacts of Spirituality on Health Status of HIV/AIDS Infected People: A Study of HIV/AIDS Control Centers in District Gujrat and Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan


  • Iqra Shakeel Lecturer, department of Sociology, Gift University, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Afzaal Afzal Doctoral Student, Department of Social Work, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Email:
  • Aaqib Shahzad Alvi Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Intisar Hussain MSc Sociology, Department of Sociology and Criminology, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.



Spirituality, Religious Practices, HIV Infection, Coping Strategies, Social Stigma, HIV/AIDS


Spirituality is a complex and multilayered construct that can incorporate the internal, external, personal, emotional and physical expression of the sacred expression. Spirituality refers to different prospects for different people, such as believing in a higher power, inner peace, finding a higher purpose in life, and connectedness with self, others and the natural world, among others. Spirituality has a significant association with the life of human beings and is a greater source of positive deeds, which has a great concern in an individual's personal, social, physical and economic situation. Throughout the world, especially in developing countries like Pakistan, individuals living with HIV face several stressors regarding the chronicity of their diseases and experience a very high level of post-traumatic stress. In this study, researchers examined the impacts of spirituality on the health condition of HIV patients by applying quantitative research methods & techniques. Data were collected from patients registered at HIV/AIDS control centres of districts Gujrat and Sargodha. Non-random convenience sampling techniques were applied, and primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. Advanced statistical software SPSS-21 was used for empirical and reliable results. The findings of the study indicated that spirituality has significantly positive impacts on the psycho-social and physical health conditions of HIV patients.


Ahmed A, Osinubi MO, Fasiku MM, Uthman MM, Soyannwo T, Jimoh OS (2021). Coping strategies among patients attending HIV clinics in a North-central State of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 24(1), 104–109.

Ataro, Z., Mengesha, M. M., Abrham, A., & Digaffe, T. (2020). Gender differences in perceived stigma and coping strategies among people living with HIV/AIDS at jugal hospital, Harar, Ethiopia. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13, 1191-1200.

Andriati, R., Sari Indah, F. P., & Pratiwi, R. D. (2023). Factors determining coping strategy in HIV/AIDS survival. Malaysian Journal of Nursing, 14(03), 126-131.

Bockrath, M. F., Pargament, K. I., Wong, S., Harriott, V. A., Pomerleau, J. M., Homolka, S. J., Chaudhary, Z. B., & Exline, J. J. (2022). Religious and spiritual struggles and their links to psychological adjustment: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 14(3), 283-299.

Bukhori, B., Hidayanti, E., & Situmorang, D. D. (2022). Religious coping strategies for people with hiv/Aids (Plwha) Muslims in Indonesia: A qualitative study with a telling-the-stories. Heliyon, 8(12), e12208.

Dilger, H., & Luig, U. (Eds.). (2022). Morality, Hope and Grief: anthropologies of AIDS in Africa. Berghahn Books.

Dunbar, W., Labat, A., Raccurt, C., Sohler, N., Pape, J. W., Maulet, N., & Coppieters, Y. (2020). A realist systematic review of stigma reduction interventions for HIV prevention and care continuum outcomes among men who have sex with men. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 31(8), 712–723.

Filiatreau, L. M., Ebasone, P. V., Dzudie, A., Ajeh, R., Pence, B., Wainberg, M., Nash, D., Yotebieng, M., Anastos, K., Pefura-Yone, E., Nsame, D., & Parcesepe, A. M. (2021). Correlates of self-reported history of mental health help-seeking: A cross-sectional study among individuals with symptoms of a mental or substance use disorder initiating care for HIV in Cameroon. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1).

Grill, K. B., Wang, J., Cheng, Y. I., & Lyon, M. E. (2020). The role of religiousness and spirituality in health-related quality of life of persons living with HIV: A latent class analysis. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(4), 494-504.

Hailegabriel, K., & Berhanu, Z. (2022). Caregiving challenges and coping strategies of family caregivers for relatives diagnosed with bipolar disorder in Ethiopia. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 104(1), 5-19.

Jolle, J., Kabunga, A., Okello, T. O., Kadito, E. O., Aloka, J., Otiti, G., Aluku, A. A., Kumakech, E., & Udho, S. (2022). HIV-related stigma experiences and coping strategies among pregnant women in rural Uganda: A qualitative descriptive study. PLOS ONE, 17(10), e0272931.

Julio Cesar Tolentino, J., Pedro De Mello Vianna Pedrosa, G., Larissa Cristine De Souza, L., Manuella Caroline Dutra Frazão, A., & Mariana Beiral, H. (2020). Spirituality in suicide prevention among people living with HIV/AIDS - A review. Journal of Mood Disorders and Therapy, 2(2).

Khademi, N., Saeidi, S., Zangeneh, A., Saeidi, F., & Choobtashani, M. (2020). The relationship between life satisfaction and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Kermanshah‐west of Iran. Health & Social Care in the Community, 28(6), 2218-2224.

Katz, I. T., Bogart, L. M., Fitzmaurice, G. M., Staggs, V. S., Gwadz, M. V., Bassett, I. V., Cross, A., Courtney, I., Tsolekile, L., Panda, R., Steck, S., Bangsberg, D. R., Orrell, C., & Goggin, K. (2020). The treatment ambassador program: A highly acceptable and feasible community-based peer intervention for south Africans living with HIV who delay or discontinue antiretroviral therapy. AIDS and Behavior, 25(4), 1129-1143.

Liu, K., Cheng, F., Dong, H., Dong, X., & Xu, J. (2021). Sexual orientation and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in China: Evidence from an institutional-based cross-sectional study. Quality of Life Research, 31(1), 125-134.

Pan, S. W., Fairley, C. K., Chow, E. P., Zhang, Y., Tieosapjaroen, W., Lee, D., & Ong, J. J. (2023). Supernatural beliefs, religious affiliations, and HIV testing among recently arrived Asian-born men who have sex with men in Australia. AIDS Care, 1-6.

Parcesepe, A. M., Filiatreau, L. M., Gomez, A., Ebasone, P. V., Dzudie, A., Pence, B. W., Wainberg, M., Yotebieng, M., Anastos, K., Pefura-Yone, E., Nsame, D., Ajeh, R., & Nash, D. (2023). HIV-related stigma, social support, and symptoms of mental health disorders among people with HIV initiating HIV care in Cameroon. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 37(3), 146-154.

Rich, C., Mavhu, W., France, N. F., Munatsi, V., Byrne, E., Willis, N., & Nolan, A. (2022). Exploring the beliefs, experiences and impacts of HIV-related self-stigma amongst adolescents and young adults living with HIV in Harare, Zimbabwe: A qualitative study. PLOS ONE, 17(5), e0268498.

Reid, R., & Dale, S. K. (2023). Structural equation modeling of microaggressions, religious and racism-related coping, medication adherence, and viral load among Black women living with HIV. Journal of Behavioral Medicine.

Saberi, P., Stoner, M. C., Ming, K., Lisha, N. E., Hojilla, J. C., Scott, H. M., Liu, A. Y., Steward, W. T., Johnson, M. O., & Neilands, T. B. (2022). The effect of an HIV preexposure prophylaxis panel management strategy to increase preexposure prophylaxis prescriptions. AIDS, 36(13), 1783-1789.

Sanagouye Moharer, G., Raisi, M., & Sultan Ahmadi Moghaddam, F. (2018). Relationship between Religious Coping Styles and Quality of Life in HIV-Positive Patients. Religion and Health, 5(2). Retrieved from

Wei, L., Yan, H., Guo, M., Tian, J., Jiang, Q., Zhai, M., Zhu, B., Yin, X., Liao, Y., & Yu, B. (2022). Perceived HIV stigma, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in China: A moderated mediation modeling analysis. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 10(2), 671-679.




How to Cite

Shakeel, I., Afzal, A., Alvi, A. S., & Hussain, I. (2023). Impacts of Spirituality on Health Status of HIV/AIDS Infected People: A Study of HIV/AIDS Control Centers in District Gujrat and Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Social Sciences Review, 3(2), 579–592.