Investigating Teacher Educators’ Perceptions on Technology Integration in Teacher Preparation Programs


  • Zahid Ali Associate Professor, School of Education, American International Theism University, Florida, USA.
  • Nazir Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Teacher Education, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
  • Hidayat Ur Rehman American International Theism University, Florida, USA.
  • Noor Ullah Islamic Culture Center, Oslo, Norway.
  • Tehniyat Zahra School Education and Literacy Department, Govt. of Sindh, Pakistan.



Technological Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, Pre-Service Teachers


The researchers focus on the TPACK framework, which is used to assess teachers' understanding of how to use technology in the classroom. The goal of the model is to define the skills and knowledge teachers need to effectively integrate technology into their lessons. Teacher educators’ can better prepare their students for the problems of the modern world by applying the TPACK. Teachers need to have a high level of the ability to integrate their knowledge of subject matter, pedagogy, with the integration of technology. In the Pakistani setting, there is still a lack of technological integration in educational settings. The purpose of this research was to determine how well teacher educators in Karachi, Pakistan, use TPACK and associated domains in their classrooms for the preparation of future teachers. Teacher educators from private teacher education institutions of Karachi were conveniently sampled for this quantitative survey research study. Data was analyzed using SPSS, and the study's measurement and structural models were put through their paces using Smart PLS. It is one of the more sophisticated programs for structural equation modeling that uses partial least squares (PLS-SEM). The study found that teachers educators' technology and technological pedagogical knowledge significantly effects on their TPACK in a positive way. Conclusions and suggestions for further research are provided for implementing the TPACK framework in teacher education programs and designing learning strategies for enhancing instructors' pedagogical skills in light of the study's findings.


Ali, Z., Ahmad, N., & Sewani, R. (2022). Examining Elementary School Teachers' Professional Proficiencies With Technology Integration and Their Impact on Students' Achievement. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(7), 2950-2968.

Ali, Z., Azam, R., & Saba, F. (2023). Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers in Karachi, Pakistan: A Quantitative Study. Journal of Social Sciences Review, 3(1), 678-688.

Ali, Z., Busch, M., Qaisrani, M. N., & Rehman, H. U. (2020). The influence of teachers’ professional competencies on students’ achievement: a quantitative research study. American Research Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 3(6), 45-54.

Ali, Z., Rehman, H. U., & Ullah, N. (2022). Measuring University Teacher Educators' Knowledge and Skills Using TPACK in Teachers Education Programs. Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review, 3(3), 83-91.

Ali, Z., Rehmat Shah, D., & Ahmad, N. (2023). Determining the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Teaching Capabilities of Educators in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 11-28.

Ali, Z., Thomas, M., & Hamid, S. (2020). Teacher Educators’ perception of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge on Their Classroom Teaching. New Horizons (1992-4399), 14(2).

Ali, Z., Thomas, M., Ahmed, N., Ahmed, I., & Ahmed, I. (2020). Assessment of Pre Service Teacher’s Perceptions on Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Karachi Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 11(3), 1402-1407.

Boschman, F., McKenney, S., & Voogt, J. (2015). Exploring teachers' use of TPACK in design talk: The collaborative design of technology-rich early literacy activities. Computers & education, 82, 250-262.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research, 295(2), 295-336.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd Ed.). New York: Routledge.

Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2010). The second educational revolution: Rethinking education in the age of technology. Journal of computer assisted learning, 26(1), 18-27.

Cox, M. J. (2008). Researching IT in education. International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education, 20, 965-981.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. University of Akron Press.

Günüç, S., & Kuzu, A. (2014). Factors influencing student engagement and the role of technology in student engagement in higher education: campus-class-technology theory. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 5(4), 86-113.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long range planning, 46(1-2), 1-12.

Harris, J. B., Phillips, M., Koehler, M. J., & Rosenberg, J. M. (2017). Editorial 33 (3): TPCK/TPACK research and development: Past, present, and future directions. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3).

Harris, J., Grandgenett, N., & Hofer, M. (2012, March). Using structured interviews to assess experienced teachers’ TPACK. In Society for information technology & teacher education international Conference (pp. 4696-4703). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed. Journal of research on technology in education, 41(4), 393-416.

Hite, S. A. (2005). Are we there yet? A study of K–12 teachers' efforts at technology integration. University of


Hong, S. (2000). The criteria for selecting appropriate fit indices in structural equation modeling and their rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 161-177.

Hutchison, A. C., & Woodward, L. (2014). An examination of how a teacher's use of digital tools empowers and constrains language arts instruction. Computers in the Schools, 31(4), 316-338.

Kim, J. H., Shin, S., & Park, J. H. (2015). A methodological quality assessment of South Korean nursing research using structural equation modeling in South Korea. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 45(2), 159-168.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of educational computing research, 32(2), 131-152.

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)?. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.

Koh, J. H. L., & Chai, C. S. (2016). Seven design frames that teachers use when considering technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Computers & Education, 102, 244-257.

Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Benjamin, W., & Hong, H. Y. (2015). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and design thinking: A framework to support ICT lesson design for 21st century learning. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24, 535-543.

McCormick, B., & Thomann, W. (2007). Integration of pedagogy, technology, and content in an undergraduate research course. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2008, March). Introducing technological pedagogical content knowledge. In annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Vol. 1, p. 16).

Pasternak, D., Hallman, H., Caughlan, S., Renzi, L., Rush, L., & Meineke, H. (2016). Learning/teaching technology in English Teacher Education: Findings from a national study. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 16(4), 373-387.

Pierson, M. E. (2001). Technology integration practice as a function of pedagogical expertise. Journal of research on computing in education, 33(4), 413-430.

Sancar Tokmak, H. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ perceptions on TPACK development after designing educational games. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 392-410.

Saudelli, M. G., & Ciampa, K. (2016). Exploring the role of TPACK and teacher self-efficacy: An ethnographic case study of three iPad language arts classes. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 25(2), 227-247.

Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological

pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) the development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123-149.

Settlage, J., Odom, A. L., & Pedersen, J. E. (2004). Uses of technology by science education professors: Comparisons with teachers' uses and the current versus desired technology knowledge gap. Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education, 81.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

Thompson, A. D., & Mishra, P. (2007). Editors' remarks: Breaking news: TPCK becomes TPACK. Journal of Computing in teacher education, 24(2), 38-64.

Uerz, D., Volman, M., & Kral, M. (2018). Teacher educators' competences in fostering student teachers’ proficiency in teaching and learning with technology: An overview of relevant research literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 70, 12-23.

Vinzi, V. E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J., & Wang, H. (2010). Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts. Springer Science & Business Media: Methods and Applications.

Wood, R., & Ashfield, J. (2008). The use of the interactive whiteboard for creative teaching and learning in literacy and mathematics: a case study. British journal of educational technology, 39(1), 84-96.

Zoch, M., Adams-Budde, M., & Langston-Demott, B. (2016). Creating Spaces for Students to Position Themselves as Writers through Experiences with Digital Writing. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 4(2), 111-125.




How to Cite

Ali, Z., Ahmad, N., Rehman, H. U., Ullah, N., & Zahra, T. (2023). Investigating Teacher Educators’ Perceptions on Technology Integration in Teacher Preparation Programs. Journal of Social Sciences Review, 3(2), 341–355.