A Study of Microaggression and its Psychological and Physiological Effects on Individuals from Marginalised Communities


  • Muhammad Nauman Khalid Department of English, Riphah International University, Faisalabad Campus, Punjab, Pakistan.




Discrimination, Marginalized, Drug Abuse, Healthcare, Depression, Mental, Microaggression


The psychological and physiological well-being of people is affected by an extensive range of circumstances. Although a single microaggression might appear innocuous, a lifetime of them can have a serious negative impact on someone's mental health. The research on microaggression and its psychological and physical impacts on people from marginalized communities in healthcare is reported in this publication. Two villages on AI reservations are involved in this community-based participatory study initiative. 130 adults participated in written surveys and interviews to gather data. More than one-third of the sample said they have come across a microaggression while interacting with their medical professionals. The self-reported histories of heart attacks, worse depressed symptoms, drug abuse, suicide cases, and preceding year hospitalization were all associated with complaints of microaggressions. In multivariate models, the connection between microaggressions and hospitalization (but just not a previous heart attack) seemed to be partially explained by assessments of depressive and drug abuse symptoms. In this research, microaggressions were linked to worse emotional and physiological health evaluations for Pakistani people living with a disease, undermining the principles of patient-centered care. Clinicians need to be aware of these subtly discriminatory behaviors, which are frequently unintentional.


Barnes, P. M., Adams, P. F., & Powell-Griner, E. (2010). Health characteristics of the American Indian or Alaska Native adult population: United States, 2004-2008. National health statistics reports, (20), 1–22.

Blair, I. V., Steiner, J. F., Fairclough, D. L., Hanratty, R., Price, D., Hirsh, H. K., Wright, L., Bronsert, M., Karimkhani, E., Magid, D. J., & Havranek, E. P. (2013). Clinicians’ Implicit Ethnic/Racial Bias and Perceptions of Care Among Black and Latino Patients. Annals of Family Medicine, 11(1), 43–52. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1442

Constantine, M. G. (2007). Racial microaggressions against African American clients in cross-racial counseling relationships. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.1.1

Hausmann, L. R. M., Jeong, K., Bost, J. E., & Ibrahim, S. A. (2008). Perceived Discrimination in Health Care and Health Status in a Racially Diverse Sample. Medical Care, 46(9), 905–914. https://doi.org/10.1097/mlr.0b013e3181792562

Lee, C., Ayers, S. L., & Kronenfeld, J. J. (2009). The association between perceived provider discrimination, health care utilization, and health status in racial and ethnic minorities. Ethnicity & disease, 19(3), 330.

Marmot, M., & Wilkinson, R. (Eds.). (2005). Social determinants of health. Oup Oxford.

Motzer, S. A., & Hertig, V. (2004). Stress, stress response, and health. Nursing Clinics, 39(1), 1-17.

Nguyen, H. T. (2008). Patient centred care: cultural safety in indigenous health. Australian family physician, 37(12).

Nordmarken, S. (2014). Microaggressions. TSQ: Transgender Studies Quarterly, 1 (1–2), 129–134.

Paradies, Y. (2006). A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. International journal of epidemiology, 35(4), 888-901.

Piette, J. D., Bibbins-Domingo, K., & Schillinger, D. (2006). Health care discrimination, processes of care, and diabetes patients’ health status. Patient education and counseling, 60(1), 41-48.

Schiller, J. S., & Bernadel, L. (2004). Summary health statistics for US adults; National Health Interview Survey, 2002: data from the National Health Interview Survey.

Sue, D. W., & Spanierman, L. (2020). Microaggressions in everyday life. John Wiley & Sons.

Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: implications for clinical practice. American psychologist, 62(4), 271.

Williams, D. R., & Mohammed, S. A. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research. Journal of behavioral medicine, 32, 20-47.




How to Cite

Khalid, M. N. (2023). A Study of Microaggression and its Psychological and Physiological Effects on Individuals from Marginalised Communities . Journal of Social Sciences Review, 3(2), 297–304. https://doi.org/10.54183/jssr.v3i2.259