Influence of Spiritual Leadership on Green Creativity Mediated by Employee Environmental Commitment


  • Shahbaz Hussain National Business School, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan.
  • Seema Afzal National Business School, The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan.



Spiritual Leadership, Employee Environmental Commitment, Green Creativity, Multilevel, Eco-friendly Dilapidation


In the recent era of globalization, organizations need to avoid it, and environmental destruction has become an enormous challenge, especially when organizations face problems of environmental degradation. Because of this, researchers have paid considerable attention to understanding key determinants of green creativity (GC), an emerging area in the fields of sustainability and organizational behavior. Supporting social learning theory, this study examines the effect of spiritual leadership on employees' green creativity through the mediating mechanism of employee environmental commitment (EEC). Rationally, this study follows a post-positivist device and thus implements a quantitative research design approach. Multilevel data was collected from 405 employees working in universities and hospitals in Pakistan. Multilevel path analysis is applied by using Mplus. Our research reveals that spiritual leadership (SL) has a statistically positive effect on employee environmental commitment, which ultimately increases green creativity (GC). This research offers several solutions to save energy by turning off extra lights, garbage, and recycling so that we can overcome the losses we face in our daily lives.


Afsar, B., Cheema, S., & Javed, F. (2018). Activating employee's pro‐environmental behaviors: The role of CSR, organizational identification, and environmentally specific servant leadership. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 25(5), 904-911.

Ahmed, I., & Danish, R. Q. (2022). Effect of ethical climate on employee green behavior through moderated mediation mechanism. Journal of Public Value and Administrative Insight, 5(1), 47-61.

Ahmad, I., & Umrani, W. A. (2019). The impact of ethical leadership style on job satisfaction: Mediating role of perception of Green HRM and psychological safety. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Almutairi, M., & Khashman, A. (2022). The impact of spiritual leadership on the decision-making process in the Kuwaiti ministries. Management Science Letters, 12(3), 177-184.

Ansari, M. A., Ahmad, M. R., Siddique, S., & Mansoor, K. (2020). An environment Kuznets curve for ecological footprint: Evidence from GCC countries. Carbon Management, 11(4), 355-368.

Astuti, R. J., & Haryani, S. P. (2021, January). Workplace Spirituality as Mediation of Spiritual Leadership to Affective Commitment. In 4th International Conference on Sustainable Innovation 2020-Accounting and Management (ICoSIAMS 2020) (pp. 72-77). Atlantis Press.

Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C., & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2005). Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature, 438(7066), 303-309.

Cerny, B. A., & Kaiser, H. F. (1977). A study of a measure of sampling adequacy for factor-analytic correlation matrices. Multivariate behavioral research, 12(1), 43-47.

Chen, Y. S., & Chang, C. H. (2013). The determinants of green product development performance: Green dynamic capabilities, green transformational leadership, and green creativity. Journal of business ethics, 116(1), 107-119.

Creutzig, F., Roy, J., Lamb, W. F., Azevedo, I. M., Bruine de Bruin, W., Dalkmann, H., ... & Weber, E. U. (2018). Towards demand-side solutions for mitigating climate change. Nature Climate Change, 8(4), 260-263.

Eisenberger, R., Karagonlar, G., Stinglhamber, F., Neves, P., Becker, T. E., Gonzalez-Morales, M. G., & Steiger-Mueller, M. (2010). Leader–member exchange and affective organizational commitment: The contribution of supervisor's organizational embodiment. Journal of Applied psychology, 95(6), 1085.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fry, L. W., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005). Spiritual leadership and army transformation: Theory, measurement, and establishing a baseline. The leadership quarterly, 16(5), 835-862.

Fry, L. W., Latham, J. R., Clinebell, S. K., & Krahnke, K. (2017). Spiritual leadership as a model for performance excellence: a study of Baldrige award recipients. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 14(1), 22-47.

Gul, S., Amin. A.M., Gul. N., Gul. H. (2022). Impact Of Corporate Governance On Organizational Performance In The Mediating Role Of Corporate Sustainability: A Case Study Of Construction Companies Of KP. International Journal of Contemporary Issues in Social Sciences, 1(2), 15-31.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective", Pearson Education, London.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Hearty, P., Ruedy, R., Kelley, M., Masson-Delmotte, V., ... & Lo, K. W. (2016). Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 C global warming could be dangerous. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(6), 3761-3812.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Jacob, D., Bindi, M., Brown, S., Camilloni, I., Diedhiou, A., ... & Zougmoré, R. B. (2018). Impacts of 1.5 C global warming on natural and human systems. Global warming of 1.5° C.

Jufrizen, J., Sari, M., Nasutian, M. İ., Radiman, R., & Wahyuni, S. F. (2019). The strategy of spiritual leadership: The role of spiritual survival, workplace spirituality and organizational commitment at private universities. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 8(1), 64-72.

Jurkiewicz, C. L., & Giacalone, R. A. (2019). Spirituality and the workplace. In The Routledge International handbook of spirituality in society and the professions (pp. 259-265). Routledge.

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.

Khan,N., Alam. Y., Usman. A. (2022). Personality Traits And Investment Decision Making In Pakistan: The Mediating Role Of Financial Self-Efficacy And Emotional Biases. International Journal of Contemporary Issues in Social Sciences, 1(2), 60-72

Khan, K. M., Ullah M. (2021). Mediating Role of Ethical Leadership Between Employees Empowerment and Competitive Edge: A Case of Commercial Banks in Pakistan. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 9(2), 219-231.

Khan, M. K., Teng, J. Z., Khan, M. I., & Khan, M. O. (2019). Impact of globalization, economic factors and energy consumption on CO2 emissions in Pakistan. Science of the total environment, 688, 424-436.

Luu, T. T. (2019). Green human resource practices and organizational citizenship behavior for the environment: the roles of collective green crafting and environmentally specific servant leadership. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(8), 1167-1196.

Muthén, B., & Muthén, L. (2017). Mplus. In Handbook of item response theory (pp. 507-518). Chapman and Hall/CRC.

Nielsen KS, Clayton S, Stern PC, Dietz T, Capstick S, Whitmarsh L. How psychology can help limit climate change. American Psychologist. 2021 Jan;76(1):130.

Norton, T. A., Parker, S. L., Zacher, H., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2015). Employee green behavior: A theoretical framework, multilevel review, and future research agenda. Organization & Environment, 28(1), 103-125.

Norton, T. A., Zacher, H., Parker, S. L., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2017). Bridging the gap between green behavioral intentions and employee green behavior: The role of green psychological climate. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(7), 996-1015.

Paillé, P., Mejía Morelos, J. H., Raineri, N., & Stinglhamber, F. (2019). The influence of the immediate manager on the avoidance of non-green behaviors in the workplace: A three-wave moderated-mediation model. Journal of Business Ethics, 155, 723-740.

Raineri, N., & Paillé, P. (2016). Linking corporate policy and supervisory support with environmental citizenship behaviors: The role of employee environmental beliefs and commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 137, 129-148.

Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative science quarterly, 224-253.

Saleem, M., Qadeer, F., Mahmood, F., Han, H., Giorgi, G., & Ariza-Montes, A. (2021). Inculcation of green behavior in employees: A multilevel moderated mediation approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(1), 331.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. john wiley & sons.

Tian, H., Zhang, J., & Li, J. (2020). The relationship between pro-environmental attitude and employee green behavior: the role of motivational states and green work climate perceptions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 7341-7352.

Ullah, M., Alam, W., Khan,Y., Joseph,V., Farooq,M.S., Noreen,S. (2022). Role of Leadership in Enhancing Employees Performance: A Case Of Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Peshawar. Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 28(1), 183-193

Wang, Y. F. (2016). Modeling predictors of restaurant employees’ green behavior: Comparison of six attitude-behavior models. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 58, 66-81.

Yuan, X., Wang, J., Deng, S., Suvarna, M., Wang, X., Zhang, W., & Ok, Y. S. (2022). Recent advancements in sustainable upcycling of solid waste into porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 162, 112413.

Zhang, Q., & Ma, Y. (2021). The impact of environmental management on firm economic performance: The mediating effect of green innovation and the moderating effect of environmental leadership. Journal of Cleaner Production, 292, 126057.

Zibarras, L., & Ballinger, C. (2011). Promoting environmental behaviour in the workplace: A survey of UK organisations. Going green: The psychology of sustainability in the workplace, 84-90.




How to Cite

Hussain, S., & Afzal, S. (2023). Influence of Spiritual Leadership on Green Creativity Mediated by Employee Environmental Commitment. Journal of Social Sciences Review, 3(2), 100–111.